What Conditions Do Nephrologists Treat?

What conditions do nephrologists treat?

Your kidneys are essential to your overall health, filtering waste and excess fluids from your blood and maintaining a healthy balance of minerals and fluids in your body. When your kidneys aren’t functioning properly, it can lead to various health problems, from high blood pressure and fluid buildup to kidney stones and chronic kidney disease. That’s where nephrologists come in.

In this article, we’ll explore some of the conditions that nephrologists treat and how they can help you maintain healthy kidney function.

The Kidneys

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on either side of your spine, just below your ribcage. They are essential to your body’s overall health and are vital in filtering waste and excess fluids from your blood. You can learn more about kidney function and health from authoritative health resources like the National Kidney Foundation.

To do their job, the kidneys receive blood from your body’s arteries, filter it, and then send the cleaned blood back into your body through your veins. The waste products and excess fluids are then expelled from your body as urine.


When the kidneys aren’t functioning properly, it can lead to a range of health problems. Common kidney problems include infections, kidney stones, and chronic kidney disease. If left untreated, kidney problems can cause serious complications, including high blood pressure, anemia, nerve damage, and even kidney failure.

That’s why it’s important to take care of your kidneys and seek medical help if you notice any changes in your urine output or experience pain or discomfort in your lower back or sides.

What Is a Nephrologist: Doctors Who Specialize in Kidneys

A nephrologist is a medical specialist who focuses on diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the kidneys. Nephrologists are highly trained medical doctors who have completed additional education and training, specifically in kidney-related conditions.

Some common conditions nephrologists treat include chronic kidney disease, kidney stones, high blood pressure, and urinary tract infections. They also work with patients with kidney-related complications from other health conditions like diabetes or lupus.

Nephrologists use various tools to diagnose and treat kidney-related conditions, such as blood tests, urine tests, imaging tests, and kidney biopsies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, urologists, and transplant surgeons, to provide comprehensive care to their patients.

If you are experiencing symptoms related to your kidneys or have a history of kidney problems, it’s important to seek medical attention from a nephrologist. They can help you manage your condition and maintain healthy kidney function, which is crucial to your overall health and well-being.

Nephrologist vs. Urologist

Nephrologists and urologists may both deal with urinary tract issues, but their expertise and focus differ. Understanding the difference between a nephrologist and a urologist can help you make the right choice in care.

Nephrologists are medical doctors who specialize in kidney-related conditions. They diagnose and treat issues that affect the kidneys, such as chronic kidney disease, kidney stones, and glomerulonephritis. To determine the cause of kidney problems, nephrologists use various diagnostic tools like blood tests, urine tests, and kidney biopsies. They also work closely with patients who have kidney-related complications caused by other health issues like diabetes or lupus.

On the other hand, urologists specialize in the entire urinary tract system, including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. They also handle issues related to the male reproductive system, such as prostate cancer and erectile dysfunction. 

Urologists diagnose and treat urinary tract issues like UTIs, bladder prolapse, and kidney stones. They perform surgical procedures like kidney stone removal and prostatectomy and offer treatments such as medications, non-invasive therapies, and surgical options. You can learn about urological conditions on trusted medical websites like Urology Care Foundation.

Choosing the right specialist for your condition is crucial to receive the most effective treatment.


What Conditions Do Nephrologists Treat? Nephrology Diseases List

What disease is under nephrology?

Some conditions that nephrologists diagnose and treat include chronic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, high blood pressure, and electrolyte imbalances. They use various diagnostic tools, such as blood tests, urine tests, and kidney biopsies, to determine the cause of kidney-related problems.

Nephrologists also work closely with patients who have kidney-related complications due to other health conditions like diabetes or lupus. It’s important to see a nephrologist if you’re experiencing any kidney-related symptoms or have been diagnosed with a kidney condition to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Here Are Some of the Most Common Nephrology Diseases:
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): This is a condition where the kidneys gradually lose function over time. It can be caused by factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain medications. Symptoms may not be apparent in the early stages, but as the condition progresses, patients may experience fatigue, swelling, and changes in urination patterns.
  • Glomerulonephritis is a group of diseases that cause inflammation and damage to the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. This can result in kidney damage and decreased function. Symptoms may include blood in the urine, proteinuria, and swelling in the hands, feet, or face.
  • Kidney Stones: These are hard mineral deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain as they pass through the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe back, side, or lower abdomen pain, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that can occur anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys, bladder, and urethra. Symptoms may include pain or burning during urination, frequent urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD): This is an inherited condition where cysts (fluid-filled sacs) form in the kidneys, which can lead to decreased kidney function over time. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, high blood pressure, and blood in the urine.
  • Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): This is a sudden, often reversible, decrease in kidney function that can occur due to various causes such as dehydration, infection, or medication side effects. Symptoms may include decreased urine output, swelling, and confusion.
  • Nephrotic Syndrome: This is a condition where the kidneys leak large amounts of protein into the urine, leading to swelling in various parts of the body, particularly the feet, and ankles. Other symptoms may include fatigue, loss of appetite, and foamy urine.

What Kind of Tests Does a Nephrologist Do

Nephrologists use a range of tests to diagnose and monitor kidney-related conditions. Here are some of the most common tests they use:

  • Blood tests: Nephrologists use blood tests to measure the levels of various substances in the blood, such as creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and electrolytes. These tests help the nephrologist evaluate kidney function and detect abnormalities.
  • Urine tests: A urine test can detect the presence of protein, blood, or other substances in the urine, which can indicate kidney damage or disease. Nephrologists may also perform a urine culture to detect a urinary tract infection.
  • Imaging tests: Nephrologists may use imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to examine the kidneys and detect any abnormalities, such as kidney stones, tumors, or cysts.
  • Biopsy: In some cases, a nephrologist may need to perform a kidney biopsy, which involves removing a small piece of kidney tissue for examination under a microscope. This test can help diagnose the cause of kidney disease and guide treatment.
  • Renal function test: A renal function test helps evaluate the overall health and function of the kidneys. This test measures the amount of blood filtered by the kidneys and the level of waste products in the blood, such as creatinine and BUN.

What Are the 3 Early Warning Signs of Kidney Disease?

There are several early warning signs of kidney disease, but three of the most common are:

  • Changes in Urination: If you notice a change in your urination patterns, such as urinating more frequently, having difficulty urinating, or experiencing pain during urination, it could be a sign of kidney disease. You may also notice changes in the color and odor of your urine.
  • Swelling: Kidney disease can cause excess fluid to build up in the body, leading to swelling in the legs, feet, ankles, and around the eyes. This swelling, also known as edema, occurs because the kidneys cannot remove excess fluid from the body.
  • Fatigue: Kidney disease can cause a buildup of toxins in the body, leading to feelings of fatigue and weakness. You may also experience difficulty concentrating or a decreased appetite. These symptoms can be caused by anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues.

It’s important to note that various health conditions can cause these early warning signs, and a medical professional should make a proper diagnosis. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you must talk to your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

When Should a Nephrologist Be Referred to a Patient?

Why would I be referred to nephrology? There are several reasons why you might be referred to a nephrologist.

One common reason is if you have high blood pressure or diabetes, which are the leading causes of kidney disease. If you have a family history of kidney disease, your primary care doctor may also refer you to a nephrologist for a check-up.

Another reason for a referral to a nephrologist is if you have protein or blood in your urine. It could indicate a kidney problem; a nephrologist can help diagnose and treat underlying conditions.

If you have a history of kidney stones, frequent urinary tract infections, or difficulty urinating, your doctor may also refer you to a nephrologist.
It’s important to note that a referral to a nephrologist does not necessarily mean that you have kidney disease. It may simply be a precautionary measure to ensure your kidneys function properly and catch any potential issues early on.

Nephrology Treatment

Nephrology treatment is specialized medical care provided by nephrologists to diagnose and manage various kidney-related conditions. Here are some of the common treatments that nephrologists provide:

  • Medications: Nephrologists may prescribe medications to manage kidney-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. These medications can help to control blood pressure, reduce inflammation, and improve kidney function.
  • Dialysis: Dialysis is a treatment that removes waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly. Nephrologists may recommend hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, depending on the patient’s condition.
  • Kidney transplant: Nephrologists work closely with transplant surgeons to provide kidney transplant evaluations, transplant surgery, and post-operative care for patients with end-stage kidney disease.
  • Diet and lifestyle changes: Nephrologists may recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to manage kidney-related conditions. These changes may include reducing sodium intake, limiting protein intake, increasing exercise, and quitting smoking.
  • Interventional procedures: Nephrologists may perform interventional procedures to treat certain kidney-related conditions. For example, they may use imaging techniques to place a stent in a blocked kidney to restore urine flow.

Nephrology treatment is personalized to each patient’s specific condition and needs. Nephrologists work closely with other healthcare providers to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.


How Much Does It Cost to See a Nephrologist?

The cost of seeing a nephrologist can vary depending on your insurance coverage, the specific medical facility, and the type of tests or procedures needed.

If you have health insurance, the cost of your visit will depend on your plan’s coverage. It’s best to check with your insurance provider to see if you need a referral from your primary care physician and to find out what portion of the cost will be covered.

Some insurance plans may cover all or a portion of the cost of seeing a nephrologist, while others may require you to pay a deductible or co-pay.
If you don’t have insurance, the cost of seeing a nephrologist will depend on the medical facility and the specific tests or procedures required.

Some clinics may offer a sliding scale fee based on income or have financial assistance programs available for those who qualify.
It’s important to note that early detection and treatment of kidney disease can help prevent more serious complications down the road.

So, if you are experiencing symptoms or have been referred to a nephrologist by your primary care physician, don’t let concerns about cost prevent you from seeking necessary medical care. You can always talk to your doctor or the medical facility about your options for payment or financial assistance.



It’s important to seek medical attention from a nephrologist if you experience any signs or symptoms of kidney disease. Early detection and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve kidney function. With proper management and care, many kidney-related conditions can be effectively treated and managed, allowing individuals to lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

About Us:

We are a dedicated team of legal professionals specializing in physician contracts at Physician Contract Attorney. With years of experience in the healthcare industry, we deeply understand the challenges faced by physicians when navigating complex employment contracts. Our mission is to ensure that our clients are protected and well-represented. We focus on providing sound legal advice tailored to your unique needs, empowering you to negotiate your contract with confidence. For more information or to schedule a consultation, please reach out to us today.

Scroll to Top